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Still Not Out of the Woods: Once making up half of spring production for some, Impatiens walleriana has dwindled in recent years to half its former glory, economically speaking. But the public still wants these affordable and colorful plants, and many in the U. After several years without the standard bedding plant impatiens, they think it should be safe to plant now.
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Still Not Out of the Woods: Once making up half of spring production for some, Impatiens walleriana has dwindled in recent years to half its former glory, economically speaking.

But the public still wants these affordable and colorful plants, and many in the U. After several years without the standard bedding plant impatiens, they think it should be safe to plant now.

They expect that a disease that came out of nowhere should disappear just as magically. Alas, this is not the case. This downy mildew existed long before we saw the problem in the greenhouse industry—long before I. Plant breeders may have accidentally chosen hyper-susceptibility to the disease as they developed impatiens with terrific flowering ability. Whereas many pathogens will mar a portion of the petals, leaves or stems when they act as parasites of their host plants, Plasmopara obducens the cause of IDM dispatches I.

It invades the plants in a thoroughly systemic manner. Infected plants will stop flowering; show yellowed, wilty leaves; drop all of their foliage and keel over—in just a few weeks. Starting at upper left, a thick-walled oospore of the downy mildew Plasmopara obducens in impatiens stem debris. Top right, an oospore starting to germinate.

Lower left, the beginning of sporangium formation. Lower right, a sporangium formed from an oospore, which will produce zoospores. Our studies of the effect of P.

When grown under the same conditions in a replicated trial, most species of impatiens will develop a few leaf spots. A few will show some branch dieback, yet the I. The balsam impatiens, I. The other plants in the genus appear to be invaded much less extensively than I.

In our trials at the Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory of Cornell University, 13 other species have been demonstrated to be hosts, but have shown a much higher degree of resistance or tolerance to infection than I. And 10 species or hybrids of the genus impatiens have shown no symptoms or sporulation in tests to date—even though shaded conditions with twice-a-day overhead irrigation were supplied and I. The picture that these data paint suggests that the unusual thing is the high level of susceptibility in I.

And the pathogen populations are changing in response to environmental factors: The super-susceptibility of I. At present the industry is making do with begonia, torenia, browallia, coleus—or with other species of impatiens New Guinea impatiens, I.

When impatiens are produced in frost-free areas of the U. Even growers in the northern U. Oospores are microscopic structures that downy mildews produce in the interest of allowing them to survive the winter when their herbaceous plant hosts cannot be relied upon.

As with seed of some highly successful weeds, these overwintering structures can be counted upon to survive for more than one winter. The details of exactly how long are not known for impatiens downy mildew, but judging from the 10 year in-soil survival of oospores of the closely-related sunflower downy mildew, we can expect that flower beds contaminated by impatiens that died of downy mildew several years ago are still dangerous places to plant impatiens this spring.

She was the first to observe how a cold treatment would allow a percentage of the thousands of oospores in impatiens stem debris to germinate once supplied with moisture. The oospores are brown and thick-walled to protect them from breakdown by UV light and other soil microorganisms. Once conditioned by temperature, moisture and perhaps other factors that we are not yet aware of, they will germinate to produce an extra-large sporangium.

Under wet conditions in the laboratory, this sporangium will give rise to tiny swimming zoospores that are able to infect impatiens. In the garden, we expect that these zoospores might be splashed onto lower leaves during a heavy rainstorm or swim short micro-distances to impatiens roots to infect them directly.

Given the extraordinary susceptibility of I. Greenhouse outbreaks were seen early last year in Oklahoma, Florida, Georgia and Texas. In the summer, landscape outbreaks were reported from Ohio, Maryland, Wisconsin, Delaware and Pennsylvania.

Healthy impatiens that we placed in-ground where impatiens had died in developed downy mildew at the end of August, two months after transplanting—but only two weeks after trickle irrigation was supplemented with overhead irrigation.

Oospores in flowerbeds will be able to start infections on healthy plants when weather permits. In spite of the demand from the gardening public with high optimism or short memories, gardeners will be wise to use I.

For large mass plantings, New Guinea impatiens and hybrids without I. Weather will vary from year to year and will sometimes favor downy mildew. A wet, rainy spring might easily lead to dramatic downy mildew outbreaks, such as we observed in But problems will probably be more localized than in those early years now that the industry is well aware of how to identify the disease and control it with fungicides.

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AXG bham. UK manufacturers are gradually embracing the adoption of Level 2 Building Information Modelling BIM standards 3D models and embedded data within their product model elements. However, these are not always well defined due to inaccuracies related to the scope and the content of the model attributes. However, defining PDTs data has been particularly challenging for manufacturers, as there is a scarcity of content knowledge which includes BIM uses i. Similarly, few studies have investigated the Level of Development LOD that manufacturers should use to create their model element product data.

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